"The dangers of hashish: the latest scientific discoveries on cannabis"
This thesis was delivered publicly on September 5th, 2002 in the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacology in Rouen, France.
It can be downloaded by clicking here:
Thesis of Dr Chamayou (in French)
[ PDF : 4,1 Mo ]
22 GOOD THOUGHTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO A PATIENT BY A DOCTOR:
I - Leads to death of the neurons of the hippocampus – the structure of the brain which is affected by Alzheimer's – and the death of some young cells by apoptosis – or programmed cell death (PCD).
II - Leads to problems of all the types of memory.
III - Leads to a loss of ability to be organized.
IV - Increases by 4 the risk of serious mental disease. In some cases this happens with one use. The problem can occur at any time.
V - Increases by 2.7 the risk having a road accident and is responsible for 20% of all road accidents.
VI - Increases by 3 the risk of violent delinquency.
VII - One cannabis cigarette is equivalent to 7 tobacco cigarettes– because of the tar content and bronchodilatation.
VIII - Alters the expression of 49 genes in the neurons of chromosomes.
IX - Causes some cardiovascular diseases, such as arteritis, cardiac dysrhythmia, heart attack.
X - Causes an increased risk of throat and lung cancers.
XI - Weakens the defenses against germs, cancers, AIDS.
XII - Under the age of 35 there are no cases of throat cancer amongst non cannabis smokers.
XIII - Can lead to flash backs, i.e. being in a drugged state without having smoked drugs, this can happen up to 3 weeks after the last usage, in particular after an emotional reaction, at work or while driving.
XIV - Causes a syndrome that affects the prefrontal lobe, i.e. a dysfunction of the anterior part of the brain, which leads to:
inability to plan ahead (or to manage one's time: the patient is trapped in the present moment, which repeats itself)
inability to cooperate – to interact with others
inability to say no to one's urges
inability to realize that one is unable to plan, cooperate, master oneself. This is called anosognosia or ill awareness of one's own mental functioning
XV - Leads to a syndrome of demotivation, i.e. one loses the will to seek out new activities, which simply leads to inactivity. The patient merely repeats what is familiar to him
XVII - Leads to a tolerance which necessitates increasing the dosage. Leads to a dependency, i.e. one cannot stop taking it for a long time all the while thinking it is one's own choice to take some more. This dependency is physical because it is a dysfunction in the brain that causes it, but it is expressed purely psychologically. When one feels the need, unlike with other drugs, there is no somatic marks, i.e. body symptoms, such as nervosas, palpitations, abdominal pains, sweating, tremor
XVIII - Has unpredictable psychiatric effects over time depending on the individual:
XIX - Intolerance to frustration and inability to learn a decrease in the amount of effort applied to situations.
XX - If a rat has his cannabis receptors removed, he can not become addicted to heroin. If a rat is given cannabis, he starts drinking alcohol, whereas without cannabis, he will not drink any.
XXI - Its effects are often not detectable to those close to the patient nor to himself
XXII - It stays in the body for a long time:
A drug-addict is someone who takes drugs in order to solve problems created by taking drugs. S/he thinks that s/he can stop taking them whenever s/he wants, however, in spite of the harmful consequences caused by consuming drugs, s/he cannot. If the drug-addict experiences withdrawal symptoms he will think only about providing himself with drugs even if it means acting against his morals. The demand is so strong that anything linked with will, effort, love or morals gradually disappears completely. Lies, violence, aggressiveness, moral or physical suffering, self-harm, being afraid to take part in everyday life become the norm. Because of these evil acts, the drug-addict looses his/her self-esteem and goes deeper into loneliness and suicidal urges.
The half-life of an active substance is the time required by a healthy body, with no previous drug use, to eliminate 50% of the absorbed substance. In the case of cannabis, the half-life is 96 hours or 4 days. This means that within 4 days the body has eliminated 50% of the initial dose. 4 days later, there will be 25% of the product left… Within 28 days, cannabis will be totally eliminated from the body of a person who has not consumed it regularly. Traces of decayed THC may be found in a regular consumer’s body up to 40 days after the last take. According to Dr Chamayou’s thesis, 18 months are needed to be completely cleared of cannabis.
Any psychotropic drug, be it legal - anxiolytic, tranquillizer, benzodiazepine, neuroleptic - or illegal - street drugs - leads to ill-being, depression and to suicide. See table with side effects of psychotropic drugs – Technical Information/Classification .
Voir le tableau des effets secondaires des drogues psychotropes (Fiches / Classification)
AEROSOLS Nitrous oxide and other pressurized gases such as those contained in whipped cream canisters or computer anti-dust sprays also have hallucinogenic effects. In a few seconds they produce excitement, dizziness, euphoria, loss of consciousness and affect the central nervous system through lack of oxygen. Moreover they are inhaled under pressure and can provoke lung frostbite and vocal chords injuries, (eg. immediately after taking this drug the voice becomes lower.)
POPPERS Volatile nitrites have similar effects to nitrous oxide. Moreover they can provoke panic attacks, heart palpitations and headaches. They are also responsible for deaths by anoxia. They are vasodilators frequently used to relax sphincter muscles. They are carcinogenic and provoke serious immune deficiencies – such as AIDS.
STAIN REMOVER Stain removers are derived from ethylene. They are hallucinogenic but their effect is more calming, unlike poppers and aerosols, which are more stimulating. They cause damage that is neurological (deafness, tremor) and intellectual (dementia).
In 1968, it contained from 0,6 to 6% of THC – TetraHydroCannabinol - principal active substance. In recent years through genetic modifications, hybrids and greenhouse cultures, it can contain up to 35% of THC. Nowadays, cannabis consumed by teenagers does not have anything in common with what their parents knew. For more information about cannabis see “Technical Information” section.
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